Tag Archives: paper

The Common place book

I had an enquiry the other day about someone’s commonplace book. What was that? According to Wikipedia:

a commonplace book is ” Commonplace books (or commonplaces) are a way to compile knowledge, usually by writing information into books. …. Such books are essentially scrapbooks filled with items of every kind: recipes, quotes, letters, poems, tables of weights and measures, proverbs, prayers, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by readers, writers, students, and scholars as an aid for remembering useful concepts or facts. Each one is unique to its creator’s particular interests but they almost always include passages found in other texts, sometimes accompanied by the compiler’s responses.  ”

When I read this I remembered that I grew up doing this in primary school. I wonder where they are now?

They are neither diary nor journal. The two examples in this blog will have some of the author’s own musings and writings in them.

Thomas Clifford’s commonplace book (NLA MS1097 – item 42) houses all manner of information:


MS 1097 item 42 - 1

Cambridge panel with full gilt spine panels

MS 1097 item 42 - 4

MS 1097 item 42 - 3


MS 1097 item 42 - 6

laced in

It is actually a great way to remember things. Indeed, as a bookbinding teacher I now deliberately leave information out of any notes I give; I recommend to my students that they add in information as a way of retaining it.

Here are some of the things Clifford wrote in the book:


Ambition like a torrent xxxx looks back…..


suspicio – jealousy


An index

On the endpapers I found this pot watermark

MS 1097 item 42 - 12

pillars or bollards

This is Nettie Palmer’s commonplace book of a much later period 1907-1936 (NLA MS 6531)

According to the catalogue, this is a notebook in which

 “she transcribed favourite pieces of poetry, extracts of prose writing, brief diary entries and personal reminisciences for the period 1907-1910, 1913-1914, 1918-1921 and 1936. Loose clippings, a drawing and manuscript notes inserted.”

I remember writing all sorts of notes. Maybe you could try as well.



Leave a comment

Filed under bookbinding, education, libraries, rare books, Uncategorized

Watermarks and how to find them

When papyrus was used as a writing medium in about 600BC by the Egyptians, contemporary users knew that as product  it did not have a long life.

The Chinese are credited with the first major paper making industry in about 95 AD. However it was the Arabians, after their conquering of the Eastern states, who diffused this knowledge throughout Western Europe. It is also possible that merchants who travelled brought information and goods across borders, fostering innovation in many techniques, papermaking being just one of those.

According to Joel Munsell, an American printer and publisher, paper was used far earlier than suspected, perhaps as far back as the 600s by the Longobards (Lombards), a Germanic tribe living in the north of Italy. They used paper for documents of importance so that forgery was impossible. In the 700s Arabians were thought to have brought back paper technology from their raids in the East. In these periods cotton and straw were used in paper manufacture. In about 1000 Arabians were already writing on satin paper, using local cotton.

Munsell’s chronology is quite extensive and shows that cotton paper and rag paper where being used on the Continent well before printing began in the 1400s. While it is greatly accepted that Italian paper mills were the first to supply paper in large quantities to printers in other countries, there are claims that it is in fact the Spanish who first produced paper in large quantities, namely at Xativa.[1]

The Spaniards having learned the secrets of papermaking from the Moors, used their knowledge of watermills to improve the grinding techniques of linen rags to produce  fine white paper.

What is a watermark and why is it important?

pot watermark

pot watermark single handle with trefoil

If we accept that paper technology came from Arabia to Spain via the Moors who settled there, the  paper marks we see in early Spanish papers  are simple lines and hatchings that are reminiscent of the marks made by the parchment makers. These are made after the paper making process.

The first  watermarks appeared in Italy in around 1270. The crude marks make way for more inventive images created by an  elaborate system, the attachment of wires to the mould. These first watermarks were simple shapes, circles, lines, in various combination, and are made during the paper making process. Where the pulp touches the raised wires, some of it slides off, creating a thinner area.  When the paper is held up to the light, the image is visible.

Churchill RBq 910.8C563 snake

Enter a caption

Papermakers used symbols on their papers as an early form of branding and quality control. Symbols more often used were animals, fabulous monsters, weapons, eagles and birds, gothic capitals, marks associated with important families or cities; ie Columns (Colonna), ladder (Scala, Milan), serpent in wave form ( the Visconti family). Were they proof of purchase, that you really had bought paper from a particular mill, and not an inferior copy? Papermakers traded, either selling or passing on their moulds, and of course they were not averse to imitating moulds from famous papermakers and their peers.  Watermarks can give us a dating clue, however provenance on the strength of a watermark is no longer solely considered.

Later when Holland began supplying the majority of Northern European printers, the  Dutch Mark of Amsterdam which had been the acknowledged sign of quality, was “borrowed” by English paper makers. So it was that marks were bought and sold or “borrowed”, which makes it very hard to use the watermark reliably as a source of provenance. The Germans claimed that by 1800 they had 25 million watermarks

Mylij RB JES 5154 MOA

Mark of Amsterdam in paper used by Milij in Cologne 1589

Knowledge of heraldry is a big help in deciphering watermarks. Many marks are coat of arms or use heraldic symbolism. Watermark nomenclature is based on familiarity with its symbols. The NAtional  Library of Australia has a guide to finding heradic sources in its collection.

The Library holds some incunabula, books printed before and including 1500. To find this material you need to eliminated the  terms”microform” and “electronic” in the search box. They are more than likely to have watermarks. To facilitate your search, the following users list are also available:

Material can be ordered via the catalogue using your library card and  viewed with a light sheet in the Special Collections Reading Room on Level 1.

So come on over and try it out!



[1] Munsell, J (1856) A chronology of paper and paper-making

Leave a comment

Filed under asian binding, bookbinding, education, libraries, rare books, watermarks

An ornamental journey

It’s been an age since I’ve been here. I am a bookbinder, but I haven’t had much experience of late, hence nothing much to say. However after a talk with my friend Hannah Brown, I made a few non new year resolutions. Practise. Practise more. So while I would like to participate in more workshops and learn interesting technique, I think at this stage I need to consolidate. So I will practise by making at least five of the same bindings. Saying that I did enter a few experiments in our Guild’s yearly exhibition. Please go visit it at the Civic Library if you are in Canberra, because we are becoming more interesting as the years go by.

The point of this post is to illuminate you further on the things that have been distracting me from binding. Printers’ decorated capitals and other ornaments.

These  are in my Flickr album “Tailpieces”. And to date, these are my best examples of a single ornament used across space and across time. In fact, during the writing of this blog I found yet another example of the same ornament.

It’s like playing “spot the difference”; the same but not quite.

When seen in this light, you have to wonder a few things? Did they buy this pattern from each other? Did they pass it on to each other? Did they duplicate it? Did they buy it from a third party? and on the questions go.

After doing research into the lives of these printers, I have come to realise that the world is indeed a small place. I had thought, erroneously, that people didn’t travel much in the olden days. But at the dawn of printing, news travelled wide and fast. Printers and bookbinders travelled; married the widows of their mentors and their heirs continued their traditions, in new places.

Here is a bit of info about the printers in chronological order:

1577: Johann Feyerabendt is a printer in Frankfurt am Main. Twice married. Related to publisher Sigmund Feyerabend;

1584: Guillaume Rouille publisher and bookseller in Lyon, he apprenticed in Venice as a bookseller with Giolito De Ferrari. He was a printer between 1545 and 1589

1600: Matthaeus Becker, printer at Frankfurt am Main from 1598 to 1602

1605; Sebastien HenricPetri, 1569 to 1627 active printer in Basel, son of Heinrich Petri.

1623: Joannis Gymnich 1570-1634 – and printer bookseller active in Frankfurt am Main and Koln

1627: Johann Saur active printer between 1591 and 1636 in Frankfurt am Main, Marburg and Kassel

1628: Jean de La Riviere

1652: Impensis Societas ecclesiastica active printing workshop in Paris

And as we speak, just today I found the same tailpiece, printed  between 1600 and 1605: 1601 Madrid by the Emprenta Real.

If you look closely they are definitely related but changed in some slight way. Some differences are obvious, some are slight. The main face is different as is the oval underneath it, which may contain initials, a blank or a symbol.Did each printer add something of their own to the block they bought? I thought that perhaps the Germans would be similar and the French would be alike; but that is not necessarily true

As far as I can tell, the 1577 Feyerabendt is the best printed and being the oldest that is perhaps not so surprising. If others are copies, then something gets lost in translation.

Now that I have come back from the London Rare Book Summer School, I understand how these might have been duplicated and sold on. They could be metal replicas of an original woodcut.

I have sat on this blog for long enough. Next week I am off to the middle of the Pacific Ocean, where I will be teaching some bookbinding while on holiday. Don’t know what the internet will be like, but I will have tales to tell; so watch this space!


1 Comment

Filed under bookbinding, education, libraries, museum, printing

What a bunch of fools!

At the beginning of each new school year, I would go to the newsagency to buy my required exercise books. Usually there was a tall one and some short fat ones.

2017-11-24 07.52.55

Foolscap and the shorter book

(If we are going down the past of nostalgia, who remembers roneos?)

I liked neither because I grew up in a French country where the exercise books were like this:

  You can learn cursive writing with this sort of paper

Since I can no longer buy these lined books, my preference now lies with the range of “A” size products. This sizing has become the standard, but in 1979, A4 books were not common.

2017-11-24 07.53.20

A4 and A5 notebooks

However what has all this got to do with the image below?


Yes it is a fool, with a very small head. He has a 7 bell collar, short even 2 bell hat, with a 4 and 3 circles under. And no hair braid.

Paper with the fool’s cap watermark was used quite commonly all over Europe. On the Continent, its size was quite varied, but in England in denoted paper 12 inches by 16 inches. The foolscap usually refers to the fool’s head with a cap. Sometimes the cap is a hat, sometimes it is a cap that goes over the ears. The cap or hat usually has two bells, sometimes on sashes of differing sizes. Early fools had braids, either diagonal or horizontal; towards the end of the 17th century the fools loose their braid and and the braid, in form of circles, is now found on the hat. The fool’s collar also differs in time and place: it can have from 4 to 8 points. Underneath the fool you will more than likely find a 4 with a crosse pommée and 3 circles. Sometimes in lieu of the 4 there might be a triangle.

In E.J. Labarre’s 1952 “Dictionary and Encyclopedia of paper and papermaking“(p110), you will find all the variety of sizes. They are too innumerable to list here, but let me mention a few: you could find small foolscap, double small, quarto, foolscap long folio. In his research, Briquet found fools caps in paper used in the Upper Rhine provinces dating to 1540. My own research has uncovered watermarks dating from 1478 to 1703; however the earlier date could be from more recent paper as it was found on endpapers used in a rebind. In England, the mark was replaced by the Britannia watermark, being paper exported from the Netherlands. It appears that the mark itself disappears altogether at about 1795.

In the above gallery you will see a variety of fools caps, with caps and braids or with short hair and hats.

Now that there are no watermarks in ordinary writing paper, I think I’ll stick to the standard A sizes!

For more pictures of watermarks click here to visit my Flickr site



Leave a comment

December 9, 2017 · 5:03 am

Worker 1 and worker 2: trials and tribulations of edition binding

I am worker 1 and I roped my partner Watkins into being worker 2. I go to work everyday, while he has binding opportunities at home. He is more of a paper artist, but has learned some bookbinding, and when it comes down to it, is much more finicky about it than I am.

We have to bind two editions of 15 or so books. It is printed on glossy/semi matte paper and 400 pages weighs quite a lot.

So we sew.


Yes we used a sewing frame each. Watkins, as a beginner sewed relatively loosely. I, as an intermediate binder, sewed relatively tighter than he. We did 6 each.

The paper we used was very slippery. The sections were six sheets. Was that too many? I couldn’t round mine. I went to my day job and left worker 2 to do the rounding. He rounded his with some ease; he tried one of mine and swore a lot.

So, as boss lady, I decided that we would back half of them. I rounded (finally) and backed one of my own, and it was hard work. It did not please me. Like, where where my 90o turns? Now let me be honest with you. I don’t actually do much binding. I don’t have time. If you follow my blog, you might have guessed that I only bind a few books a year. So even though I teach bookbinding, I don’t do much of it myself. BUt intellectually, I know what needs to be done. Those who can, do, those who can’t, teach….

I’m not being negative; I’m being realistic.

So, to get back to the production line.

I left Watkins in the bindery today to back his 6 books plus one of mine. This is the result:

Shirts neatly folded

Shirts neatly folded in his drawer. What does that say? He told me he had to leave the bindery before he chucked something on the wall.

It took him 5 hours to back 6 books. I had warned him that setting the book in the press would be difficult. He was cursing and swearing as the textblock moved about. He was cursing and swearing as the sections seemed to move of their own accord.  I gave him this job because he can back far better than me; yes, he had done it before. But neither of us had experienced this paper. The lesson here is that if you have shiny, slippery paper, you will have a hell of a time backing it. Bookbinders out there, if you read this, please send me your advice!

img_0211 img_0212

You must admit that for a beginner, that’s pretty good. He was very hard on himself. As the Q & A  person, yes I could find fault, but neither of us have the experience to make the perfect backing; we simply haven’t done enough of them.

I was sewing endbands last night:


See, I was crafty; I decided that if I couldn’t round the books, I’d just keep them straight. I don’t believe there is any shame in that. This is certainly a learning process.

  1. don’t use shiny paper
  2. check your sewing
  3. practise on something not important
  4. practise some more.

Any advice gratefully accepted. The books will look great at the end of the day, but their journey will have been long and painful.







1 Comment

Filed under bookbinding

Scrolls and concertinas

In a previous post we examined  lontars,  collections of dried palm leaves which have texts or illustrations inscribed on them, and held together by either a central thread or threads on either ends.

Papyrus and dried leaves do not have a very long life, and this was known to contemporary writers. As a medium they are not very flexible. It seems only logical that the invention of paper would produce an evolutionary change in how the written word was stored.

The fragility and handling difficulties of the lontar, or the Chinese  pothi made from bamboo slats, was overcome by writing on long sheets of paper.

The continuous form of the scroll was first developed in China during the Tang dynasty.  While much of the writing was previously done on silk, it wasn’t until the Tang period  that artists began to use paper as their medium. Scrolls can be read horizontally, from right to left, or vertically. Scrolls were not necessarily for every day use. While some scrolls contained religious texts, scrolls depicting landscapes and scenes were used as decoration.


The scroll allows for the slow development of a story. Presumably, presenting bite size chunks of information allows the reader to concentrate and be fully aware of what he is seeing or reading. This form was prevalent until the Song dynasty.

In Asia there are two varieties of scroll:

The horizontal scroll, when used  for texts, is called  makimono in japanese (with few illustrations). The picture scroll is called juan zhou in chinese or emakimono in japanese, meaning in the chinese manner.

The vertical scroll can also be used for text, however as a picture scroll it is called biao-fa or guafu in chinese or  kakemono in Japanese.

In its construction, the Asian scroll differs to the European scroll in that it is made up of several sheets of paper, attached around and behind the main scroll piece.


vertical scroll



In Europe,  the parchment scroll had been used from the earliest times and even after  the advent of printing. In fact, scrolls are still in use today as away of archaizing information; that is, increasing the importance of the information contained within it, hence the bestowing of university degrees in scroll form.

Parchment scrolls were easy to carry in one’s pocket, vest or satchel, making information easily transportable. If you needed to add information but weren’t too sure how much needed to be added, scrolls were quite adaptable. A piece of parchment could easily be sewn onto the end. Scrolls were also particularly handy for maps or for writing out genealogies. They were used extensively in mass, where the priest read out parts of the mass, and while reading the scroll an image could be seen by the congregation.


However, unrolling scrolls must have been tedious and inconvenient. It is no wonder that in Asia at least, the concertina provided a first step towards the codex. While the pages of a concertina are folded, it is usually read in a two page spread, not necessarily as a drawn out concertina shape. It is my experience that more often than not Asian concertinas horizontally.

Concertinas sizes depend on lengths of paper.  One sheet may have been long enough to contain all the necessary information; however it is likely that several sheets would be pasted together end to end to form a continuous length. A search on the internet will reveal a myriad easy ways to make a concertina: folding a single sheet of paper, attaching two boards on the end, and there is a book.

concertina drawing

Different ways of folding a concertina and attaching separate leaves


Book artists have embraced the idea of the concertina because it is a quick and effective means of producing a book. if you want to learn more about making concertina bindings in the Asian manner,  Kojiro Ikegami’s seminal book on Japanese binding techniques[1]is a terrific place in which to start.



[1] Ikegami, Kōsanjin. & Stephan, Barbara B.  (1986).  Japanese bookbinding : instructions from a master craftsman.  New York :  Weatherhill

Leave a comment

Filed under asian binding, bookbinding, libraries, museum

Watermark of the week: When does a bow look like a wombat?

Over the last two years I’ve examined about 220 books and have collected over 400 watermarks. Sometimes there are tow versions of one book and I get them both out to see if the paper is the same; if there is a little difference in the printing or the pagination. Sometimes it’s as though I see the same things over  and over again.

In the search  for watermarks I look through databases and books, sometimes getting a glimpse of a mark that might resemble one that I have.

What do you think this is?

IMG_5307 IMG_5341 IMG_5125

Could you believe these are all bows? as in bows and arrows, made in Paris between1636 and 1642.

I thought it looked like a potato or a fat bear or a wombat. However , how does one describe this and how do you find it in a database if you don’t know it’s a bow?

I’ve just been browsing books, and that trains your eye. In books of later periods I have not seen any more marks like this. I wonder who’se marks they represent. They were in the following books:

  1. Sancti patris nostri Gregorii Episcopi Nysseni opera : nvnc denvo correctivs et accvrativs edita … & in tres tomos distributa Parisiis : sumptibus Aegidii Morelli … , 1638
  2. Sancti Patris nostri Justini philosophi et martyris Opera. Item Athenagorae Atheniensis, Theophili Antiocheni, Tatiani Assyrii, & Hermiae Philosophi tractatus aliquot, quos sequens pagina indicabit. Quae omnia Graecè & Latinè emendatiora prodeunt. Parisiis : apud Clavdivm Sonnivm, 1636
  3. Qvorvm plvrima Graece, qvaedam etiam Latine nunc primum prodeunt : Graeca cum manuscriptis exemplaribus diligenter collata, Latinae versiones ad Graecorum normam exactae & recognitae / Cura & studio Iacobi Sirmondi. Lvtetiae Parisiorvm : sumptibus Sebastiani Cramoisy et Gabrielis Cramoisy, 1642

If anyone out there knows, please tell me!



Leave a comment

Filed under bookbinding, libraries, museum

The find of the week – January

It is saturday and I am writing this quickly before I start making the custard for the ice cream…

When I first started the search for watermarks every little grape and heart and crown was exciting. Now I have the “oh that’s only a heart” attitude. When there are no watermark, there is a little sense of outrage. Anyhoo…this week, this is what I found:

A unicorn, well at least two parts of him. His op half was in the flyleaf of volume 1 and the bottom part was in the back fly of volume 3 of

Historia theologico-critica de vita, scriptis, atque doctrina sanctorum patrum : aliorumque scriptorum ecclesiasticorum trium primorum saeculorum ex virorum doctissimorum literariis monumentis collecta (RB JES 4979) at the National Library, printed in Augsburg in 1783
Unicorn on edge of cross grain paper, with belt and ornament

Unicorn on edge of cross grain paper, with belt and ornament

bottom quarter of the unicorn in vol3

bottom quarter of the unicorn in vol3


Just as with the Virgin Mary in a previous post, I have searched online databases and all the books I can get my hands on, to no avail. So if anyone can tell me if they have seen this same unicorn, I would be most grateful.

Dos a dos binding

Dos a dos binding

This is my project book of the research I am currently undertaking. It is easy to carry around: 150 bindings and 260 watermarks! I’ll be giving this to my friend Fabienne when she visits from Montevideo….

Next…I found two jokers in the same book. This has happened to me before in The History of the Plot. These two came from :

The primitive origination of mankind, considered and examined according to the light of nature / written by the honourable Sir Matthew Hale (RBfCLI 4016) printed in London 1677.

I am getting my son Max to photoshop all my watermarks so that they are clearer. This is hard to see. But once your eye is trained you can see any number of details.

And lastly, please find below a man on a horse. They are also sometimes called picadors. I found him in:

Mellificium theologicum ad dispatandum et concionandum proficuum… : Colligente & producente m. Johanne Binchio (RB De vesci 920)

man on horseThis was printed in Amsterdam in 1658.

I  am currently just collecting data and putting them in a book. This really has made my week!




Filed under bookbinding, libraries, museum

Saints and saintly women

I am not a religious person; I tried to read the Bible once but got bored quickly. I believe that this has led to  a lack  in my art appreciation abilities. I might understand more symbolism if I had had a more thorough religious literary upbringing.

My random watermark discoveries have shifted my attentions to spanish papermakers and their marks. Did you know that the largest collection of Jesuit texts in the Southern Hemisphere is held at the library of the Compania de Jesus in Cordoba, Argentina. The National Library of Australia has over 5400 books in their Jesuit Collection.

In fact in terms of historical papermaking I haven’t been able to find much information on spanish papermakers. As I peruse the Library’s catalogue, and bring up from the stacks  a mountain of books on papermaking history, much of it is Britain-centric.

I have a lot of data; lots of watermarks to sift through. They are starting to look the same. So while having access to data on internet databases such as Piccard’s or Le Briquet  they hurt my eyes. Using books is perhaps limited, but online databases take longer

To help me sort my data I’d like to make lists of papermakers. Italians, Spanish, French, Dutch. It isn’t as easy as it sounds. I can’t find a list of spanish historical papermakers. I am going to have to guess and amalgamate data.

This is just a long intro to the book of saints I was examining.

Leather bound, blind tooled landscape book

Oracvlvm anachoreticvm : Sanctissimo patri nostro / D. Clementi VIII

Printed in Venice by Raphael Sadeler, and bound with Musius, Cornelius, 1503-1572. Solitvdo, sive Vita solitaria lavdata. It’s about hermits and saintly women, who might have been hermits.

IMG_5521      IMG_5522

It is a strange landscape book. You don’t see many of those. Covered in leather with 5 single cord supports. Blind tooled. No introduction or title pages. In fact it looks like someone’s scrap book. The first and last third (more or less) of the book are cross -grained bound pages with text; it is landscape because correctly paper grained printed plates have been stuck on to make the book wide.


cross grain meets grain

Each page in these section has text and then an image. In between these parts, are engraving of different saints. Some of the plates are loose. What struck me was that the images were not what I was used to; more accurately, not what I expected.

The book is dated Venice 1600. The pictures are so naturalistic, cartoon-like in the mood they give.

Hermit's gardenThere are everyday scenes with hermits in. Some strange beasts and people.


So, picked at random because I was looking for spanish books, I come across some interesting watermarks:

This appears in the first third of the book:

Shield watermark

And a shadow watermark, maybe? Can you make out the face in the tree?

Mask like face under the bird cage in tree

And as the plates are printed on full pages, we get this mark:


The women return to the cross grain/grain pattern and have this mark:

Shield with 3 fleur d elis and crown aboveI was wondering if each of the women had their own mark, a saintly mark, but I think it was just random paper:

Can't make it out. Can you?

This watermark seems part lion, part snake. I’d really appreciate it if anyone had a clue to please let me know what you think it might be.

An anchor, which is typically Italian

The anchor above was found in the back fly. This is a typical italian mark. There were also horns amid the women’s skirts.

Chasing watermarks is a bit like trying to find the end of the rainbow; it is endless.





1 Comment

Filed under bookbinding

Not much happening outside my own head

I’m happy at work, and since I have finished all the books that are going away for competitions I am a bit slow in the home bindery.

This is what is exciting  me at the moment:


Horn watermark

Horn watermark

Perhaps not this one is particular, but certainly this one: two griffins? found in a book about Spanish royal lineage.

Two griffins around shield

Two griffins around shield

I posted about searching for watermarks a few months ago. Well I am still obsessed by them. However given that I now have so much data, I’ve decided to consolidate by using the light sheet on books that I have already examined for their binding structure.

Take a look at this:

Watermark in Albrecht Durer's head

Watermark in Albrecht Durer’s head

I was so excited to discover this watermark in a self portrait by Albrecht Durer. Unfortunately I can’t quite make out what it is. Amongst the same set of images here is a tower watermark:

there is a crenelated tower in there somewhere.

there is a crenelated tower in there somewhere. Can you see the doorway?

This is the best image I can take. I think there is a tall crenelated tower, with perhaps a smaller secondary tower next to it. I can’t find this in any resource.

So as I consolidate data, I am also searching books and online databases, such as Piccard online and Le Briquet online. These take hours to sift through and at the end of the day all the watermarks end up looking the same.

I mean, how many grapes can you possibly have as watermarks? Well I read somewhere online that Germany once claimed to have had 25 million watermarks attributed to their country before the 1800s!

I have found French pots; they can have one or two handles, lid or no lids.

Pot, one handle with flowers

Pot, one handle with flowers

Recently I found a snake, with shield?


Here we have grapes in a circle

2015-06-24 14.14.58

a hat,

this is a hat believe it or not

this is a hat believe it or not

and here is an axe:

An axe

An axe

As I sift through all my photos I see some marks that resemble each other. I suppose the biggest part of the job now is to compare all the similar photos and find them on the databases. I can’t tell you how  excited I get when I find a mark. It is such an overlooked item in a book. Even with the lightsheet, the printing can make the mark hard to decipher. I think I have trained my eyes to find them though.

In the libraries of Europe and America, these marks must seem so inconsequential; but in my small world here they are amazing to my colleagues and myself.


Leave a comment

Filed under bookbinding